Climate: Mediterranean climate in the northern part, which includes the coast and the Tell Atlas (hot and dry summers, wet and fresh winters); semiarid on high plateaux in the centre of the country; and desert beyond the Saharan Atlas. The temperatures range from very high to very low (over 40°C by day and under 5°C by night).
Land boundaries: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Morocco and Tunisia
field: Algeria is composed of three parts: the Tell in the north, the High plateaux and Saharan Atlas in the centre and the Sahara in the south. Tell: a narrow coastal belt 1,200 km long and up to 200 km wide.
It is delimited to the south by a mountain chain, by the Tlemcen region to the west, and by the Tunisian border to the east. High plateaux and Saharan Atlas: beyond the Tell Atlas there is a plain and high, semiarid plateaux stretching diagonally from the Moroccan border to the north-eastern part of Algeria. The Sahara: comprising 85% of the Algerian territory (200 km from east to west, 1 500 km from north to South). It is not a sea of sand, as people often presume. The Algerian Grand Sud alternates volcanic landscapes (Hoggar massif), ‘moon’scapes (Tassili N’Ajjer), rock plains (Reg) and sand plains (Erg).
Land use: Arable land: 3.17%; permanent crops: 0.28%; other: 96.55% (2005 est.).
Natural hazards: Mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes, mudslides and floods, fires, flash floods, landslides, wildfires and locust invasion.
Climate: Desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters
Land boundaries: In total 2,665 km. Border countries: Gaza Strip 11 km, Israel 266 km, Libya 1,115 km, Sudan 1,273 km
field: Vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta
Land use: Arable land: 2.92%; permanent crops: 0.5%; other: 96.58% (2005 est.)
Natural hazards: Periodic droughts; frequent earthquakes; flash floods; landslides; hot, driving wind storm in spring called the ‘khamsin’; dust storms; sand storms; extreme temperatures; epidemics.
Climate: Temperate; hot and dry in southern and eastern desert
Land boundaries: In total 1,017 km. Border countries: Egypt 266 km, Gaza Strip 51 km, Jordan 238 km, Lebanon 79 km, Syria 76 km, West Bank 307 km
field: Negev desert in the south, low coastal plain, central mountains
Land use: Arable land: 15.45 %; permanent crops: 3.88 %; other: 80.67% (2005 est.)
Natural hazards: Sand storms may occur during spring and summer, droughts, periodic earthquakes, floods, wildfires, epidemics
Climate: Mostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to April)
Land boundaries: In total 1,635 km. Border countries: Iraq 181 km, Israel 238 km, Saudi Arabia 744 km, Syria 375 km, West Bank 97 km
field: Mostly desert plateau in east, highland area in west; Great Rift Valley separates East and West Banks of the Jordan River
Land use: Arable land: 3.32 %; permanent crops: 1.18%; other: 95.5% (2005 est.)
Natural hazards:Droughts and periodic earthquakes, floods, storms, desertification
Climate: Mediterranean: mild to cool, wet winters with hot, dry summers. Lebanon Mountains experience heavy winter snows
Land boundaries: In total 454 km. Border countries: Israel 79 km, Syria 375 km, 225 km coastline. Nahr el Litani is the only major river in the Near East not crossing an international boundary
field: Narrow coastal plain. Bekaa Valley separates Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon Mountains
Land use: Arable land: 16.35%; permanent crops: 13.75%; other: 69.9% (2005 est.)
Natural hazards: Floods, wildfires, droughts, earthquakes
Climate: Mostly dry and desert like in nature. The northern regions enjoy a milder Mediterranean climate
Land boundaries: In total 4 348 km. Border countries: Algeria 982 km, Chad 1 055 km, Egypt 1 115 km, Niger 354 km, Sudan 383 km and Tunisia 459 km
Terrain: Coastline 1 770 km, Sahara desert extends approximately 1100 km from east to west, and 1,000 km from north to south, in about the shape of a rectangle
Land use: Arable land: 1.03 %, permanent crops: 0.19 %, other: 98.78 %
Natural hazards: Hot, dry, dust-laden sirocco (known in Libya as the gibli). This is a southern wind blowing from one to four days in spring and autumn. There are also dust storms and sandstorms.
Climate: Mediterranean, becoming more extreme in the interior
Land boundaries: In total 2,018 km. Border countries: Algeria 1,559 km, Mauritania 1,561 km
field: Northern coast and interior are mountainous with large areas of bordering plateaux, inter-mountain valleys, and rich coastal plains
Land use: Arable land: 19%; permanent crops: 2%; other: 79% (2005 est.)
Natural hazards: Northern Mountains geologically unstable and subject to earthquakes;periodic droughts, dust storms, fires
Climate: A Mediterranean climate prevails in Palestine. Summers are hot and dry. Winters are rainy and cold
Land boundaries: In total 466 km. Bordering countries: Israel 358 km, Jordan 97 km, Egypt 11 km
field: Mostly rugged dissected upland; some vegetation in west, but barren in east
Land use: Total percentage of the agricultural land is less than 25% and the Palestinian built-up area is less than 10%
Natural hazards: Earthquakes in the region are considered a major hazard, with low probability but high adverse impacts. Hazards also include floods, heat, wind and landslides
Climate: Temperate in north with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers; desert in south
Land boundaries: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria and Libya
field: Mountains in north; hot, dry central plain; semi-arid south merges into the Sahara
Land use: Arable land: 17.05%, permanent crops: 13.08%, other: 69.87% (2005 est.)
Natural hazards: Dust storms and sand storms frequently occur. Although Tunisia is not in a high-risk earthquake zone, low seismic activity can occasionally occur. In winter, roads can be blocked by downpours. Fires and floods (every 10 years)