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  • Algeria

    Climate:  Mediterranean climate in the northern part, which includes the coast and the Tell Atlas (hot and dry summers, wet and fresh winters); semiarid on high plateaux in the centre of the country; and desert beyond the Saharan Atlas. The temperatures range from very high to very low (over 40°C by day and under 5°C by night).

    Land boundaries:  Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Morocco and Tunisia

    field:  Algeria is composed of three parts: the Tell in the north, the High plateaux and Saharan Atlas in the centre and the Sahara in the south.  Tell: a narrow coastal belt 1,200 km long and up to 200 km wide.

    It is delimited to the south by a mountain chain, by the Tlemcen region to the west, and by the Tunisian border to the east. High plateaux and Saharan Atlas: beyond the Tell Atlas there is a plain and high, semiarid plateaux stretching diagonally from the Moroccan border to the north-eastern part of Algeria. The Sahara: comprising 85% of the Algerian territory (200 km from east to west, 1 500 km from north to South). It is not a sea of sand, as people often presume. The Algerian Grand Sud alternates volcanic landscapes (Hoggar massif), ‘moon’scapes (Tassili N’Ajjer), rock plains (Reg) and sand plains (Erg).

    Land use: Arable land: 3.17%; permanent crops: 0.28%; other: 96.55% (2005 est.).

    Natural hazards:  Mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes, mudslides and floods, fires, flash floods, landslides, wildfires and locust invasion.

     

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  • Egypt

    Climate: Desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters

    Land boundaries: In total 2,665 km. Border countries: Gaza Strip 11 km, Israel 266 km, Libya 1,115 km, Sudan 1,273 km

    field: Vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta          

    Land use: Arable land: 2.92%; permanent crops: 0.5%; other: 96.58% (2005 est.)

    Natural hazards: Periodic droughts; frequent earthquakes; flash floods; landslides; hot, driving wind storm in spring called the ‘khamsin’; dust storms; sand storms; extreme temperatures; epidemics.

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  • Israel

    Climate: Temperate; hot and dry in southern and eastern desert

    Land boundaries: In total 1,017 km. Border countries: Egypt 266 km, Gaza Strip 51 km, Jordan 238 km, Lebanon 79 km, Syria 76 km, West Bank 307 km       

    field:  Negev desert in the south, low coastal plain, central mountains          

    Land use: Arable land: 15.45 %; permanent crops: 3.88 %; other: 80.67% (2005 est.)

    Natural hazards: Sand storms may occur during spring and summer, droughts, periodic earthquakes, floods, wildfires, epidemics

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  • Jordan

    Climate: Mostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to April)

    Land boundaries: In total 1,635 km. Border countries: Iraq 181 km, Israel 238 km, Saudi Arabia 744 km, Syria 375 km, West Bank 97 km      

    field: Mostly desert plateau in east, highland area in west; Great Rift Valley separates East and West Banks of the Jordan River

    Land use: Arable land: 3.32 %; permanent crops: 1.18%; other: 95.5% (2005 est.)

    Natural hazards:Droughts and periodic earthquakes, floods, storms, desertification

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  • Lebanon

    Climate: Mediterranean: mild to cool, wet winters with hot, dry summers. Lebanon Mountains experience heavy winter snows

    Land boundaries: In total 454 km. Border countries: Israel 79 km, Syria 375 km, 225 km coastline. Nahr el Litani is the only major river in the Near East not crossing an international boundary           

    field: Narrow coastal plain. Bekaa Valley separates Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon Mountains             

    Land use: Arable land: 16.35%; permanent crops: 13.75%; other: 69.9% (2005 est.)

    Natural hazards: Floods, wildfires, droughts, earthquakes

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  • Libya

    Climate: Mostly dry and desert like in nature. The northern regions enjoy a milder Mediterranean climate

    Land boundaries: In total 4 348 km. Border countries: Algeria 982 km, Chad 1 055 km, Egypt 1 115 km, Niger 354 km, Sudan 383 km and Tunisia 459 km

    Terrain: Coastline 1 770 km, Sahara desert extends approximately 1100 km from east to west, and 1,000 km from north to south, in about the shape of a rectangle

    Land use: Arable land: 1.03 %, permanent crops: 0.19 %, other: 98.78 %

    Natural hazards: Hot, dry, dust-laden sirocco (known in Libya as the gibli). This is a southern wind blowing from one to four days in spring and autumn. There are also dust storms and sandstorms.

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  • Morocco

    Climate: Mediterranean, becoming more extreme in the interior

    Land boundaries: In total 2,018 km. Border countries: Algeria 1,559 km, Mauritania 1,561 km

    field: Northern coast and interior are mountainous with large areas of bordering plateaux, inter-mountain valleys, and rich coastal plains

    Land use: Arable land: 19%; permanent crops: 2%; other: 79% (2005 est.)

    Natural hazards:  Northern Mountains geologically unstable and subject to earthquakes;periodic droughts, dust storms, fires

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  • Palestine

    Climate: A Mediterranean climate prevails in Palestine. Summers are hot and dry. Winters are rainy and cold

    Land boundaries: In total 466 km. Bordering countries: Israel 358 km, Jordan 97 km, Egypt 11 km

    field: Mostly rugged dissected upland; some vegetation in west, but barren in east

    Land use: Total percentage of the agricultural land is less than 25% and the Palestinian built-up area is less than 10%

    Natural hazards: Earthquakes in the region are considered a major hazard, with low probability but high adverse impacts. Hazards also include floods, heat, wind and landslides

  • Tunisia

    Climate: Temperate in north with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers; desert in south

    Land boundaries: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria and Libya

    field: Mountains in north; hot, dry central plain; semi-arid south merges into the Sahara

    Land use: Arable land: 17.05%, permanent crops: 13.08%, other: 69.87% (2005 est.)

    Natural hazards: Dust storms and sand storms frequently occur. Although Tunisia is not in a high-risk earthquake zone, low seismic activity can occasionally occur. In winter, roads can be blocked by downpours. Fires and floods (every 10 years)

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